Tiger, Sumatran


Panthra tigris sumatrae


The Sumatran tiger is the smallest subspecies of tiger in the world, with male Sumatran tigers rarely growing to a maximum of 9 feet in length. Sumatran tigers range in weight from 165-300 pounds. Their stripes are much narrower than those of other tiger species, making them unique in their appearance. Sumatran tigers also have larger manes than other subspecies.

Family

Felidae

Order

Carnivora

Class

Mammalia

Range

Sumatra, Indonesia

Habitat

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Life Expectancy

In the wild, 15 years. In captivity, 18-20 years.

Sexual Maturity

Females: 3 years, Males: 4 years

Diet

Small and large vertebrae prey

Status

IUCN – Critically Endangered

Behaviors

Female Sumatran tigers have a gestation period of 95-110 days. Litter size is anywhere from 1-5 cubs, each weighing only 2-3 pounds at birth. Females with cubs must hunt every 5-6 days, while solitary females only hunt every 8 days. Young tigers leave their mother around one and a half to three years of age. Females reach sexual maturity around three years of age, and males around four years of age. In the wild, tigers are solitary animals. In zoos they are also solitary, with the exception of brothers that are sometimes kept together. Tiger territories range between 10 and 30 square miles and depend upon food availability. Male tiger territories will sometimes overlap with the territories of several females. Tigers will mark their territories by scratching trees and by scent marking. Scent marking is when tigers “spray” trees and bushes with a mixture of urine and scent gland secretions. Tigers are capable of several types of vocalizations. They may roar loudly when threatened, they moan to communicate over long distances, and at closer ranges they “chuff” as a friendly greeting. Sumatran tigers are the smallest subspecies of tiger, allowing them to move more easily through dense jungle than other subspecies. Tigers are capable of jumping long distances due to the longer length of their hind legs compared to their forelimbs.

Adaptions

Special Interests

Sumatran tigers have slightly webbed paws, allowing them to swim more efficiently.

Folklore

Conservation

Jacksonville Zoo History

Our Sumatran tigers became part of the Land of the Tiger exhibit in 2014.

Exhibit

Land of the Tiger